commutation

commutation
/komyateyshan/
Alteration; change; substitution; the act of substituting one thing for another. In criminal law, the change of a punishment to one which is less severe; as from execution to life imprisonment. The President of the United States has the power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. U.S. Constitution, Art. 2, Sec. 2, cl. 1. With respect to state offenses, the governor of a state has the power to grant commutations. Sherwood v. Murphy, 123 N.Y.S.2d 360
Compare amnesty
In commercial law, substituting one form of payment for another.
In civil law, the conversion of the right to receive a variable or periodical payment into the right to receive a fixed or gross payment; a substitution of one sort of payment for another, or of money payment in lieu of a performance of a compulsory duty or labor.
Commutation may be effected by private agreement, but it is usually done under a statute

Black's law dictionary. . 1990.

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Synonyms:
/ (of a greater punishment by a less)


Look at other dictionaries:

  • commutation — [ kɔmytasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • déb. XIIe; lat. commutatio « changement » 1 ♦ Didact. Substitution, remplacement. Commutation et permutation. Spécialt Substitution d un élément par un autre, dégageant des distinctions pertinentes (notamment en… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Commutation — Com mu*ta tion, n. [L. commutatio: cf. F. commutation.] 1. A passing from one state to another; change; alteration; mutation. [R.] [1913 Webster] So great is the commutation that the soul then hated only that which now only it loves. South. [1913 …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • commutation — index clemency, compensation, compromise, exchange, immunity, mutuality, replacement, subrogation Burton …   Law dictionary

  • commutation — com‧mu‧ta‧tion [ˌkɒmjˈteɪʆn ǁ ˌkɑː ] noun [countable] INSURANCE a single large payment instead of a series of future payments: • The assets of the insurer will be used to make a single, final payment, called a commutation, to policyholders. * * …   Financial and business terms

  • commutation — COMMUTATION. s. f. Changement. Il n est en usage que dans cette phrase, qui se dit en matière criminelle, Commutation de peine …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • commutation — mid 15c., from O.Fr. commutacion change, transformation, exchange, barter (13c., Mod.Fr. commutation), from L. commutationem (nom. commutatio) a change, alteration, noun of action from commutare to change, alter entirely (see COMMUTE (Cf.… …   Etymology dictionary

  • commutation — Commutation. substant. fem. Changement. Il n est en usage qu en cette phrase. Commutation de peine …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • commutation — [käm΄yə tā′shən] n. [ME & OFr commutacion < L commutatio, a changing < commutatus, pp. of commutare,COMMUTE] 1. an exchange; substitution 2. a) the substitution of one kind of payment for another b) the payment made ☆ 3. the act of… …   English World dictionary

  • Commutation — (v. lat. Commutatio), 1) Veränderung, Vertauschung; 2) (Rhet.), so v. w. Antimetabole; 3) (Commutationswinkel, Astr.), der Winkel, welchen die Linie von der Erde aus zur Sonne mit einer andern von der Sonne zu einem Planeten macht; er ist immer… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • commutation — et changement, Commutatio …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • commutation — ► NOUN 1) the commuting of a judicial sentence. 2) the commutating of an electric current …   English terms dictionary

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